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Inartalicirpet / Our Weaving Ways

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Weaving is an ancient Alutiiq / Sugpiat art. Our people have been transforming natural fibers in to beautiful woven objects–inartat–for thousands of year. However, after the Russian conquest of Kodiak, weaving faded from daily practice. This exhibit celebrates the renewal of Alutiiq weaving, a process that began in the 1950s. Studies of closely related Aleut / Unangan weaving traditions, examinations of ancient objects, and trips to Russia to explore historic weavings are reawakening ancestral knowledge in a new generation of weavers.

A Heritage of Weaving

Ancient Weavings

The largest collection of ancient Alutiiq baskets comes from a 600-year old village site by the Karluk River. Here, cool, wet conditions preserved rare and fragile containers made from grass, spruce root, baleen, and birch bark. Some of the Karluk baskets are small. People probably used these baskets to hold tools or as food bowls. One example held clamshells. Larger baskets were likely used for cooking and collecting. These baskets were so tightly woven they retained water. Some of the largest examples have burn marks on the inside, made by hot rocks dropped in the basket to heat its contents.

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Spruce root basket fragment with decorative false embroidery similar to a Tlingit design known as “mouth track of a wormwood”  AM193.87:19072. Koniag, Inc. collection, Karluk One.

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Open weave baleen basket fragment, AM193.87:19050. Koniag, Inc. collection, Karluk One.
 

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Small open weaver grass basket with braided rim, AM193.94:3654. Koniag, Inc. collection, Karluk One.

Woven Objects

If you entered a typical Alutiiq household of the seventeenth century, fine weaving would surround you. Grass mats would line sleeping benches, cover the walls, and hang in doorways. Woven containers for collecting, storing, and cooking food would surround a central fireplace. People would wear woven socks, mitts, and caps. A mother would hold her baby in a woven carrier. And the rafters would hold woven tools, nets for fishing and birding, and braided lines for harpoons and boats. Weavings were both function objects and artwork. They served many purposes, yet were made with great care.

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Rye grass collecting basket with colored wool accents, by Coral Chernoff, 2011. Purchased with support from the Rasmuson Foundation Art Acquisition Fund. AM

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Circular textile mat by June Pardue.  Photo courtesy June Pardue.

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Rye grass socks woven by June Pardue for the Alutiq Museum, 2013. AM727.

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Baleen net fragment from Karluk One village site, AM193.87.9351, courtesy Koniag, Inc.

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Woven ornament on a beadded headdress, made by June Pardue.  Purchased with support from the Rasmuson Foundation Art Acquisition Fund, 2008.  AM650.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spruce Root Hat

Cuumillat saaplitaarliit maani awirnat aturluku.

The ancestors around here made and wore spruce root hats.

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Spruce Root Hat, painted and decorated with glass beads, dentalium shells and bundles of sea lion whiskers, AM516. Owned jointly by the Alutiiq Museum & the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center.

Alutiiq Hats

Hats are essential in Kodiak’s cool, wet weather and Alutiiq people fashioned them from a variety of materials. Warm, water resistant caps were sewn from bird and animal pelts, visors carved from wood, and hats woven from spruce root. In addition to providing protection from the weather, clothing symbolized a person’s place in society. Spruce root hats - awirnat - were symbols of power and prosperity. They were considered heirlooms and passed through families.

This nineteenth cnetury Alutiiq hat features a conical cap with a stiff and a slanted brim. Both pieces were twined from multiple strands of spruce root. The weaver alternated the number of strands and the direction of twining to form an open diamond pattern on the brim. An inside headband is woven from thicker roots and features a chinstrap of red wool.

Elaborate decorations provide the final touches on Alutiiq garments. Embroidery, painted designs, and attachments are among the design elements used to honor the plants and animals that sustain human life. This hat was painted blue and then decorated with red and black lines depicting a creature with an open mouth and claws. The image may reflect a helping spirit. Spruce root hats were worn for hunting.

Other decorative elements include glass beads, dentalium shells and bundles of sea lion whiskers sewn to the hat’s surface. Dentalium shells were obtained in trade with the societies of Southeast Alaska. Historic sources indicate that a pair of delicate dentalium could be traded for an entire squirrel skin parka. The large number of shells on this hat suggests that it was owned by a very powerful person.

Words for Basketry

Inartaq / Basket

The Alutiiq term for a basket or woven item is inartaq (inartat for 3 or more). The word comes from the
verb inarte- “to lay it down.”

Vocabulary:

Alutiiq; Aleut - Alaska Native people of Kodiak; Sugpiaq
anatomy - ilai (literally: its many parts)
animal; living being - unguwallriaq
bag - misuuk
baleen - kagit’ruaq
baleen, of - kagit’ruanek; arwam kagit’ruanek
basket; woven item - inartaq
beads - pinguat (S); pisiRkat (N)
belt, woman’s woven - naqugun
bottom, basket’s - inartam acaa
braid - killtaq
clothing - agunaq (S); atkuq (N)
cordage - aRafkuq (N); iRufkuq (S) (see rope)
cover (lid), basket’s - inartam patua
daddy-long-legs spider - sukunuuk
floor, basket’s - inartam natra
from the land - nunamek
from the sea - imarmek
grass - weg’et
grass, from - wegnek
handle, basket’s - inartam agaa
hat, spruce root - awirnaq
hats, they made - saaplitaarliit
here (around) - maani
legs (many), its - irui

leg - iruq
lid; cover - patuq
woven mat - piiraq
materials - taimasqat (ones that come…)
net - kugyaq
nettles - uqaayanat
ornament - tangerhnit’staaq
parts, its (many) - ilai (see also anatomy)
rope - aRafkuq (N); iRufkuq (S) (see cordage)
sinew - qikarlluk
spokes (legs), basket’s - inartam irui
spruce root - napam nukiinek
spruce root hat - awirnaq
spruce tree - napaq
starts, it - aularnirluku
Sugpiaq - Alutiiq; Alaska Native people of Kodiak
thank you - quyanaa
thank you very much - quyanaasinaq
thread - kelugkaq
wear, to - aturluku
weaving ways, our - inartalicirpet
whale - ar’uq; arwaq
woven items - inartanek canamasqat
(woven things that are made)
woven mat - piiraq

To hear Alutiiq speakers pronouncing a selection of these words, please visit the Alutiiq Word of the Week Archive and search alphabetically.


Weaving Materials

Grass

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Grass Weaving Tradition

In Alutiiq households, grass was an essential resource. People collected grass regularly to insulate homes, cover floors, line boots, and make containers. Some weavers prefer collecting dry grass in the fall after it is cured by nature, others gather and cure grass in the summer. Where grass is harvested and how it is cured will determine its color and texture.

In preparation for weaving, grass blades are split to use the inner stalk and sorted for weaving. The thicker grass serves as spokes, while thinner pieces serve as weavers.

Grass hung to dry.  Photo courtesy June Pardue.

Spruce Root

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SplitCropNapam Nukiinek Inartalicirpet
Spruce Root Weaving Tradition

The Sitka spruce forests of Northern Kodiak are relatively young, at less than 1,000 years old. Ancestral Kodiak weavers obtained spruce root through trade and travel, long before spruce grew on Kodiak. Spruce roots for weaving are typically collected in spring and summer. With a digging stick, the young roots are pulled from shallow soil. After briefly heating the roots to soften their sap, the outer brown bark is peeled away. The root’s pale interior is then split with a fingernail to create narrow strands, and the root’s core discarded. The resulting sturdy, and flexible, strands are soaked in water for pliability and bundled for later use.

Spruce root is harvested, heated, peeled, split, and soaked in water to weave. The thicker spruce roots serve as spokes, and the thinner strands as weavers.

Spruce root splitting, photo courtesy the Kodiak Area Native Association.

Baleen

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Baleen Weaving Tradition

A select group of ancestral Alutiiq hunters pursued whales, harvesting Kodiak’s largest sea mammals for food, fat, and raw materials. Sheets of baleen — a stiff, fibrous material found in the mouths of the humpback, grey, and minke whales — provided strands for weaving and lashing. Ancient baleen baskets are sturdy containers for carrying and storing items. They are commonly large with an open weave.

Baleen is dried and split into strips, depending on its intended use. The thicker strips provide the spokes, and the thinner strips serve as weavers.

Feeding baleen whale, photo courtesy J. Turney / Shutterstock.

Journey to Lean

St. Petersberg

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Two museums in St. Petersburg, Russia hold some of the earliest collections of Alutiiq/Sugpiaq
and Aleut/Unangan baskets in the world: The Russian Museum of Ethnography and the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology & Ethnography (Kunstkamera). In 2010, Dr. Sven Haakanson, Jr. led a group of
weavers to visit their collections.

“The whole idea of the project is to bring information home to share with the community so that we learn from our ancestors about what they made; we add to what the weavers already know; and then we pass that on.”

- Sven Haakanson, Jr., 2010

Culture Bearers

For Alutiiq culture-bearers, studying and practicing traditional arts is a way of life that has deep personal and spiritual meaning. Their motivation is part of an internal process to grow as culture-bearers, and to assist community goals. They are helping to reclaim and share traditional knowledge for cultural revitalization.

“When I was invited to the trip over to Russia, I was kind of shocked. I just never dreamed that I would be able do something like that. To go over there to view all the beautiful work — baskets, inside of baskets, inside of baskets. Where did they have all that time to do that. It wasn’t just one person who did it. Those were communities of work in those big boxes they have over there.”

– June Pardue, 2013

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Weavers study ancestral baskets at the Russian Museum of Ethnography (left to right) Coral Chernoff, Andreeva Elena of the RME, Sven Haakanson, Jr., Melissa Berns, Elizabeth Peterson, June Pardue, and Vickie Era. Photo by Will Anderson.

Deeper Understanding

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Being able to experience collections firsthand has immeasurable value.

“In a book, you can’t look inside, underneath, the frontside of the stitch, the backside of the stitch.
So, to be able to see all that, you get the whole picture.”

- Coral Chernoff, 2013

June Pardue and Elizabeth Peterson recording their observations of baskets at the Russian Museum of Ethnography.  Photo by Will Anderson.

Inspiration

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Before this experience, Alutiiq weavers had never studied such collections. 

“Up until then, we see a few baskets here and there. We see a few in the Baranov collection.
We see a few in books, but we’ve never seen that quantity.”

"The quality of the workmanship was so amazing. It was unreal. It was pretty inspiring. I thought, ‘I’m going to have to come back and not be so lazy and really put something else into my baskets.”

- Coral Chernoff, 2013

Vickie Era Pankretz, June Pardue, Coral Chernoff, and Melissa Berns examine grass mats at the Russian Museum of Ethnography.  Photo by Will Anderson.

Weavers

Coral Chernoff

“From the first stitch I took, I loved weaving. I finished my first basket in that class and wove another basket that winter.”

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Coral Chernoff learned to weave from her mother, Arlene Skinner, who taught weaving in Kodiak for over 25 years. Arlene was teaching grass basketweaving at Kodiak College in the fall of 1990 when Coral signed up for her first weaving class. Coral was eager to learn how to gather and prepare more beach rye grass when summer came. Arlene stressed the importance of weaving with the local rye grass as well as learning the fine art of processing grass in the traditional manner. Gathering and curing grass requires a comprehensive knowledge of local materials and resources, from knowing where high quality grass grows to understanding how to correctly process the grass in order to achieve optimal functionality in the finished product. Coral appreciates the transformative process of curing grass and spruce root, the constant challenges inherent in achieving a quality end product and the learning necessary to perfect her processes.

In her earlier weavings, Coral emulated designs and techniques she saw in her mother’s baskets, as well as those from the basket collection of the Baranov Museum. Exposure to other weaving designs and styles from traditional baskets throughout Alaska inspired her, and eventually Coral refocused on Alutiiq baskets from the Kodiak region. Coral found opportunities to travel abroad to study mid- 1800s Alutiiq grass and spruce root weavings from Kodiak, viewing collections at museums in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2010 and the Sheldon Jackson Museum in Sitka, Alaska in 2012.

Baskets in St. Petersburg collection particularly piqued Coral’s interest because of their clearly functional nature, in contrast to the smaller trade, or decorative, baskets found in local Kodiak collections. Studying woven pieces made for actual use led Coral to expand her own processing and weaving techniques to achieve specific functional goals such as large baskets for gathering and carrying wild edible plants or folded woven wallets for storing personal items.

Coral notes that studying collections has been invaluable in terms of understanding how the materials, design and stitches combine and impact the functional nature of the finished woven item. “These old weavings not only impress me with their function but are astounding in their workmanship and beauty."

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Open weave beach rye grass basket with handle, 2007, AM617.  Purchased with support from the Rasmuson Foundation Art Acquisition Fund.

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Beach rye grass and salmon leather wallet with ivory clasp, 2012, AM727:2.

Vickie Era Pankretz

“I wasn’t really active before (going to Russia). I kind of just nosed my way into our culture because I had such a longing for it because I didn’t get it from anywhere else.”

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Vickie Era Pankretz was born in Fairbanks, Alaska. Her mother Anna Griechen Benson was born in Naknek after their family was displaced from Katmai. When Anna was one-and-a-half years old, her mother died and she was sent to live in Unalaska at the Jessie Lee Home for Children. It wasn’t until she grew up that Vickie realized that her mother had come from “a generation in denial.” She didn’t even know her mother could weave until Vickie was in her twenties.

“That was when I began pursuing Native American things, especially with my kids, and this kind of brought her out of her shell...” [Vickie’s mother Anna] made grass basketry in the Yup’ik coil style, influenced from living in Bristol Bay. Vickie says, “I only learned some of the coil kind. Other than that, I began learning the cedar bark basketry here [in Washington].”

Vickie explains that, “it wasn’t until 1997 I took my first actual grass basket weaving class from Arlene Skinner. We brought her down to Seattle. I just messed around with it. I didn’t make baskets fully out of the grass. I used sweet grass, sedge grass, raffia. I still mixed it with cedar. The cedar baskets from this area you weave from the bottom going up. Everything was completely opposite. I caught on really fast because I’d been weaving for a long time. You get the feel for the tensions. I’d also gotten an old anthropological paper from 1974 written by Ray Hudson. I read that and read that, and prayed and taught myself. I knew I wasn’t going to do it myself. It helped that I was a weaver anyway."

I wasn’t really active in grass weaving before going to Russia. After Nancy Anderson died, I applied for her term at Natives of Kodiak. Through that I connected with the Alutiiq Museum and my culture. When Fish (Sven Haakanson) put the call out for the weavers, I applied. While I didn’t have much of a grass weaving history, I had a lot of cedar weaving history. When I got chosen to go to Russia, I just fell in love with the grass weaving and welcomed the challenge to come up and teach.” After returning from Russia she taught in Larsen Bay.

She began teaching basket weaving in the 1990s. But she taught Alutiiq grass weaving first two her own kids and grandchildren about six month after her return from Russia. She has since taught five classes. Today, she teaches at the Longhouse at Evergreen College in Olympia, Washington.

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Beach rye grass basket with purple and turquoise embroidery floss, 2011, AM727:3

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Beach rye grass and raffia bottle basket with
petroglyph from Cape Alitak motif, 2010, AM728.
Gift of Vickie Era Pankretz.

June Simeonoff Pardue

As June Pardue raised her two daughters she relied on weaving as her livelihood. She recalls how,


“They didn’t know that I was paying for their education. Little children and their little minds, they didn’t know that’s how I made my living. Something as simple as socks. If they needed a package of socks, I would weave a pair of earrings and sell those, and then I could get them what they needed.”

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June Pardue was born in Old Harbor to Sophia Johnson and Jacob James Simeonoff, Sr. Sophia Johnson was Inupiaq and Jewish from St. Michael, Alaska. Jacob James Simeonoff, Sr. was Alutiiq and Russian born in Aiaktalik, and moved to Old Harbor prior to the 1964 tsunami.

June recalls, “Growing up in Old Harbor before the earthquake and tidal wave of 1964 were treasured memories because after the tsunami and the earthquake, more than just the village was lost. What was lost was being able to pick grass from the lagoon in a clean, untouched area because after the earthquake and tidal wave a boat harbor was put in and a runway right were we used to pick grass. Those of us who were children picking grass with our parents have those memories that would be hard to share with people today, because they can’t picture in their minds what it was like then. I can remember the crispness in the fall because that’s when weavers liked picking their grass. Not in the summer like weavers in some areas who collect and cure the grass during the summer. Traditionally in Old Harbor, weavers preferred that nature take care of curing it. Along with that would be the smell of smoked salmon in the fall on the racks on the beach. Listening to seagulls out there, dancing and flying around…something that I really miss, living inland like I do now.”

She grew up surrounded by weaving. “In Old Harbor it was Feodosia Inga. She took my mother in as a weaver. So while my mother was learning I was on the floor picking up the grass and copying them.” Many other weavers in Old Harbor, Akhiok and Kaguyak were influential to June. “One of our chores was to help mom pick her grass. So, we did that, along with carrying water in buckets. Those come with values, and parents always teaching us to respect our Elders. Today, we still see that in our family, which I’m really grateful for. I’m just proud that my grandchildren want to have that in their lives, too.” June has taught weaving and other traditional arts for decades. She also practices dance, tans and sews salmon skin, and stiches mittens, mukluks, hats, and regalia, beads headdresses, as well as gathers subsistence foods, berries, and makes seal oil.

June has taught weaving and traditional arts for decades, traveling extensively to teach. She lives in Sutton, Alaska and teaches regularly at the Alaska Native Heritage Center in Anchorage.

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Wire basket with glass beads, 2012, AM727:2.
Gift of June Pardue.

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Beach rye grass and cord woven earrings, 2012, AM729:1.
Gift of June Pardue.

Elizabeth Peterson

Elizabeth Peterson describes weaving as,

“connecting to the past. How our people lived. How they made do with what was there. How they went and collected things and how they made it into something to work - to make life. Basket weaving is soothing to sit there with your own self and your weaving, and with the past and happy times.”

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Elizabeth “Lulu” Peterson was born in Kaguyak village, to Phyllis Peterson of Kaguyak and Nick Rastopsoff, Sr. of Afognak. She is the third oldest of eight children. Elizabeth reflects back on her childhood watching her mother weaving and harvesting grass.

“When I was 13 to 15 years old, she used to be busy basket weaving, taking big bottles and weaving over them. She used to have us girls get involved and go help her go pick the grass. I used to be confused as to what kind of grass we were picking. She tried to show us and I still couldn’t figure it out. But we helped her harvest the grass. The way we done it I remember picking a blade at a time; not the way it is done now. It’s tedious work, ‘cause you know it takes lots of blades of grass to make a basket. It would be fall time that she took us out there when the grass was already brown. She used to be busy basket weaving. She never kept them. She gave them to others. She tried to teach me. I tried my hands at it…but I never got the hang of it when I was young.”

Then in 2009, Elizabeth saw a class offered in Aleut basket weaving at the Alaska Native Heritage Center taught by a woman from Unga. Since the art had died off at home, she thought she would go and learn to make sure that it stayed alive. “When I first tried, it was all sloppy, then after a couple of days it all came natural. I was weaving and I was back in the past. I could see my mom weaving. I could picture my mom weaving.” About a year and a half later, she had the opportunity to travel to St. Petersburg, Russia with the Alutiiq Museum to experience historic collections firsthand.

“When I was in Russia and saw them up close, I saw that it was made with yarn. Beautiful color…it had dots of yarn, it was so beautiful. It just caught my eye. So that is why I used that color on that weave,” she explains about the bottle basket she wove following the trip. She says she was most impressed with how the weavers of the historical baskets in Russia used color and incorporated yarn. Also, how they braided multiple strands to make handles. She says, “Grass is so brittle, you’d think it’s going to break, but no they are tough. I want to make one that is not too closed up with a little space, that way when you pick berries, the dirt will fall out.”

Elizabeth found it most helpful when she was able to visit and work with the other weavers who traveled to Russia. They were able to learn from each other as they exchanged ways of weaving. Since she started weaving in 2009, she has made over 20 baskets. Of those, she has sold 15 and donated the others to raffles or given them as gifts.

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Beach rye grass basket with red and blue embroidery floss, 2011, AM727:4.

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Beach rye grass bottle basket with multicolored yarn, 2011, courtesy Koniag, Inc.

 

Melissa Berns

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Melissa learned to weave as a girl growing up in Old Harbor, both through cultural arts programs and in personal relationships with Elder weavers. She fondly remembers many of her teachers, including Christine Ignatin, Emily Bigoli and Marra Andrewvitch.

Melissa views traditional arts as her lifestyle, and chooses not to sell her work. She regularly gifts her creations to loved ones and nonprofit organizations. Today, Melissa lives in Old Harbor and enjoys sharing her traditional knowledge with students.

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Rye grass basket. Photo courtesy Will Anderson.

Chain of Knowledge

Parts of a Basket

“If you don’t finish your basket, you’ll get sukunuuk (daddy-long-legs) in your house.”
- An Alutiiq Proverb

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Grass basket start courtesy June Pardue.

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Beach Find - grass basket by Arlene Skinner with tan floss and bone beads, 2006. Purchased with support from the Rasmuson Art Acquisition Fund.

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Beach rye grass open weave basket by Eunice Neseth, 1978, courtesy Baranov Museum, 79-31-1a.

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Beach rye grass fish basket by Eunice Neseth, late 20th Century, AM657.

Teachers

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Feodosia Inga of Old Harbor with her young students (1946-1949). (left to right) Fedosia Inga, Maria Inga, Bobby Inga, Carl Christiansen, and Jane Ann Shugak. Photo by Fred and Marie Bailey (Old Harbor School teachers), courtesy Wilmer Andrewvitch (AM694:306).

Alutiiq weaving is a sustained living art, passed down through generations. However, by the 1950s there were few weavers actively practicing on Kodiak Island. Thankfully, several women in Old Harbor and Kodiak worked to regenerate this knowledge by offering community workshops and teaching in schools. Their students and descendents are continuing these traditions.

In Old Harbor, Feodosia Inga taught and encouraged many women to weave. June (Simeonoff) Pardue recalls as a little girl how Feodosia took her mother in as a weaver. She tells, “while my mother was learning, I was on the floor picking up the grass and copying them.”

In Kodiak, Anfesia Shapsnikoff of Atka and Unalaska taught Aleut/Unangan grass basket weaving through the Kodiak Historical Society. Her students Eunice Neseth and Hazel Jones went on to teach many other workshops in Kodiak and rural communities to continue the art.

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Basket weaving workshop participants in Kodiak, 1981. (back row left to right) Dolores (Gallagher)
Padilla, Mary (Panamaroff) Garoutte, Anne (Reft) White, Suzi Jones, Agnes (Prokopeuff) Thompson, Mary
(Reft) Gallagher, Jan Steinbright. (middle row) Rita Blumenstein, Angie Dushkin, Linda (Krukoff) Saunders, Gertrude Dorothy (Hope) Svarny, Marian Johnson, Peter Corey. (front row) Margaret Lokanin, Eunice (von Scheele) Neseth, Marie Shugak, Laura Simeonoff, Mary Peterson and Martha (Naumoff) Matfay. Photo courtesy Kodiak Historical Society PR 413-12-b.

The Next Generation

After their return to the U.S., each weaver traveled to one of Kodiak’s rural villages to teach grass basket weaving during Alutiiq Week cultural celebrations.

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Alutiiq week students in the rural villages of Akhiok, Larsen Bay, Ouzinkie, and Port Lions learning to weave. Photos courtesy Melissa Berns, Coral Chernoff, Vickie Era Pankretz, and Sven Haakanson. (far right) Grass basket lid collected by V. I. Jochelson from Unalaska, RME Aleut collection, courtesy RME 8762-16863/ab.

 

Learn More

References

Resources to learn more about weaving:


Berezkin, Yuri E. (ed). (2012). The Alutiit/Sugpiat: A catalog of collections of the Kunstkamera. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.

Chandonnet, Ann. (1975). “Sophia Pletnikoff’s cloth made of grass.” The Alaska Journal, 5:1.
Gogol, John M. and Devine, Sue E. (1982). American Indian basketry: Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut basketry of Alaska, No. 6 (2 ed.).

Golder, Frank A. (1903). “The girl who married a star, a Kodiak Island story.” Tales from Kodiak Island.
The Journal of American Folklore, 16(60), 16-31.

Hulbert, Bette. (October 1999). “Aleut basketry collection of the Alaska State Museum.” In Concepts, technical paper no. 10. Juneau, AK: Alaska State Museums, Division of Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Alaska State Museums. (4 pp).

Hudson, Ray. (2007). Moments rightly placed: An Aleutian memoir. Kenmore, WA: Alaska Book Adventures, Epicenter Press (2nd ed.).

Hudson, Raymond L. (1987). “Designs in Aleut basketry.” In Peter L. Corey (Ed.), Faces, Voices and Dreams: A celebration of the centennial of the Sheldon Jackson Museum Sitka, Alaska. Division of Alaska State Museums and Friends of Alaska State Museum. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Johnson, Marian and the Kodiak Historical Society. (n.d.). Kodiak community oral history project, 1971-1984. In the Juneau, Alaska: Alaska State Library Historical Collections. (0085 MS).

Lobb, Allan and Wolfe, Art. (1990). Indian baskets of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Graphic Arts Books (1st ed.).

Lynch, Kathy. (1977). Aleut basket weaving (1st ed.). Anchorage, Alaska: Adult Literacy Laboratory, Anchorage Community College. [out-of-print]. (2nd ed.). (1995). Anchorage, Alaska: Circumpolar Press. (25 pp). [Available at the Kodiak Public Library, RA 746.412; or UAA and Kodiak College, E98.B3 L9].

Murray, Martha G. and Corey, Peter L. (July 1997). “Aleut weavers.” In Concepts, technical paper no. 8. Juneau, AK: Alaska State Museums, Division of Libraries, Archives, and Museums. (23 pp).
[Available at http://museums.alaska.gov/documents/concepts/concepts_04_july_1997_no_08.pdf].

Neseth, Eunice. (1970). Kodiak Island ethnic heritage project: Anfesia Shapsnikoff and Simeon Pletnikoff. [sound recording, Available at the Kodiak Public Library RA 920 Kodiak.]

Nielsen, Laura. (August 18, 2011). Weaving in time - Alutiiq baskets. [Web log article].
Retrieved from http://frontierscientists.com/2011/08/weaving-in-time-alutiiq-baskets/

O’Connell, Elizabeth & WonderVisions. (2013). Collecting and curing grass. [4:05 minutes]. Podcast retrieved from http://frontierscientists.com/videos/collecting-and-curing-grass/

O’Connell, Elizabeth & WonderVisions. (2013). Sharing Alutiiq stories: Weaving our past into our present. Kodiak, Alaska. [video]. [28 minutes].

O’Connell, Elizabeth & WonderVisions. (2013). Coral’s basket feat: Russian inspired. [5:24 minutes].
Podcast retrieved from http://frontierscientists.com/2011/08/find-seal-intestine-filed-in-corals-cabinet/

Samuelson, V. and Neseth, E. (1981). How to Attu: A guide to making your own Attu basket. (1st ed). Kodiak, Alaska: Arctic How-to Books. [out-of-print]. [Available at Kodiak Public Library A 746.41 Samuelson; or UAA/Kodiak College Libraries E98.B3 S25 1981].

Shaw, Robert and Burris, Ken. (2000). American baskets: A cultural history of a traditional domestic art.
New York: Clarkson Potter Publishers.

Shapsnikoff, Anfesia and Hudson, Raymond L. (1974). Aleut basketry. Fairbanks, Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska.

Steffian, Amy F., Marnie A. Leist, Sven D. Haakanson, Jr., and Patrick G. Saltonstall. (2015). Kal’unek - From Karluk, Kodiak Alutiiq History and the Archaeology of the Karluk One Village Site. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.

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