Allrani iwaiyaqa qapuk qutmi, kesiin miktaartuq. – Sometimes I find pumice on the beach, but it is always small.
Alutiiq craftsmen once used pumice like sandpaper, to smooth the surfaces of tools during manufacture. Kodiak’s archaeological sites commonly contain pieces of pumice with facets, ground surfaces created by rubbing the stone against a bone or wood object. In more recent times, people used pumice to clean their stove tops, and anything else they wanted to smooth or shine.
Although Kodiak Island has no volcanos, pumice can often be found along the archipelago’s shores, delivered to the area by wind and tides from the volcanically active Alaska Peninsula. Much of the pumice found on Kodiak in the past century comes from the 1912 eruption of Mt. Novarupta on the Alaska Peninsula. The explosion, the largest in the 20th century, sent more than 30 cubic kilometers of volcanic debris into the air. Although prevailing winds carried much of the massive debris cloud toward the northern end of the Kodiak Archipelago, light weight pumice clogged the ocean and floated around the islands.
In the days following the eruption, people in boats reported that the pumice was a foot deep and that in Shelikof Strait, the pumice field was dense enough for a person to walk on! As the tides carried pumice to shore, and as pumice eroded from the Alaska Peninsula landscape, Kodiak beaches were inundated with the material. People found garbage can-sized pieces and collected pumice along the shores for decades.
Photo: Pumice and Scoria abraders from the Karluk One Site, Koniag, Inc. Collection.
Sea stars, commonly known as starfish, are abundant, colorful residents of Kodiak’s waters. There are numerous species, which can be found in almost any environment–from rocky shores to mudflats, and from tidal pools to deep marine waters. Sea stars are echinoderms–spiny skinned creatures related to sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. They have hundreds of tube feet tipped with suction cups. By pumping water in an out of their feet, sea stars can maneuver skillfully across the sea floor.
Many Kodiak sea stars have five legs like the flat bottom sea star (Asterias amurensis), mottled sea star (Evasterias troscheli), or leather sea star (Dermasterias imbricate). Others, like the sunflower star (Pycnopodia helianthoides) can have more than a dozen. Sea stars are enthusiastic eaters, gobbling up urchins, mussels, clams, crabs, and small fish. They have few predators, but people often consider them a nuisance. They eat up intertidal resources, rob crab pots, and foul fishing gear.
Although some cultures harvest and consume sea stars, Elder Phyllis Peterson reports that Alutiiq people do not. Moreover, she warns people not to touch sea stars, as they can make you itch all over.
The Alutiiq word for sea star–agyaruaq–comes from a word for star–agayaq–and literally means star-shaped. A five pointed star, or pentagram, is among the petroglyph images at Cape Alitak, and thought to be up to 1,000 years old. It may represent a starfish. Today, people tend to equate this shape with stars in the night sky, but it is unlikely that Alutiiq people thought of it in this way. In Alutiiq cosmology the stars are beings who gaze down at Earth through holes in the sky world, with one, large, oval eye in the center of their forehead!