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Word in Alutiiq: Giinaq
In a sentence:

Giinan tang'raqa! – I see your face!


MP3 File: face
FaceThe human face is the most frequently portrayed image on Alutiiq masks. Although many masks have animal elements–a beak shaped mouth or encircling feathers for example–very few actually show complete animal faces. A rare example is an owl mask collected from an archaeological site in the village of Karluk. This unique piece may have belonged to a shaman, as the spirit helpers of shaman often appeared as owls or cranes. However, it is the human characteristics that are most evident in most masks. This pattern may reflect the Alutiiq belief that all things have a human consciousness, a person inside that could show itself and required respectful treatment. Even when animal elements are present, their use with stylized human features–a heavy brow and a long nose–suggest the underlying humanness of every being.

Like masks, the human face was also a canvas. Here, identity, emotion, and social circumstance were symbolized in classical Alutiiq society. Face paint, tattoos and jewelry were more than just decorations, they transformed a person’s image into a social statement. Mourners cut their hair and blackened their faces. Participants at winter festivals wore headdress and face paint to symbolize their home village. Girls tattooed their chins to symbolize readiness for marriage. Warriors painted their faces in preparation for a raid.

Photo: Ivory fastener with a carved face, Karluk One site, ca. AD 400, Koniag, Inc. Collection.
Podcast Available: Face
Battered Thing
Word in Alutiiq: MuRutuumasqaq
In a sentence:

Una muRutuumasqaq yaamaq giinangq'rtuq. This pounded rock has a face.

MP3 File: battered
BatteredThingAlutiiq people crafted stone into a variety of useful tools, turning Kodiak bedrock into subsistence gear, utensils, and artwork. There were three major ways of working stone. People chipped glassy chert into elegant arrows and hide scrapers. They ground slate into sharp-edged ulus and slender spears, and they battered or pecked water-rounded cobbles into sinkers, mauls, and stunning sculptured lamps. The Alutiiq word muRutuumasqaq literally means a “thing that was hammered/battered,” referring to objects made by pounding one rock against another.

People made pecked stone objects from a variety of commonly available, local stone–granite, greywacke, and sandstone. Stone pecking is slow, time consuming work. Recent experiments suggest that the best way to shape a cobble is with two stones, using a hammerstone to drive a pecking stone. Many pecked stone objects also took advantage of the natural shape of a cobble as part of the tool design. For example, to create a sinker for deep sea fishing, craftsmen pecked grooves into a spherical beach cobble to form a channel for attaching a line.Alutiiq people made pecked stone artifacts for thousands of years. Some of the archipelago’s earliest assemblage, those over 7,000 years old, hold pecked stone sinkers and oil lamps. However, about 2,000 years ago, pecked stone artistry flourished, as craftsmen shaped and decorated stone oil lamps. Some examples have sunken designs pecked into the bowl or outer edge of the lamp. Others have sculptural elements that appear in relief along the lamp rim or rise from a lamp’s bowl. These small, intricate carvings are particularly astounding when you consider they were made by pecking.

Photo: Prehistoric stone sculpture from Chirikof Island, USF&WS collection.
Podcast Available: Battered Thing
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